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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test designed to assist a person in identifying some significant personal preferences. Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers developed the Indicator during World War II, and its criteria follow from Carl Jung's theories in his work Psychological Types.

The Indicator is frequently used in the areas of pedagogy, group dynamics, employee training, leadership training, marriage counseling, and personal development.

Academic psychologists have criticized the indicator in research literature, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity data" and that it is an example of the Forer effect.

The registered trademark rights in the phrase and its abbreviation have been assigned from the publisher of the test, CPP, Inc., to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust.


Historical development

C. G. Jung first spoke about typology at the Munich Psychological Congress in 1913. Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917, developing a four-type framework: Social, Thoughtful, Executive, and Spontaneous. In 1923 Jung's Psychological Types was published in English translation (having first been published in German in 1921). Katharine Briggs's first publications are two articles describing Jung's theory, in the journal New Republic in 1926 (Meet Yourself Using the Personality Paint Box) and 1928 (Up From Barbarism). Katharine Briggs' daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, wrote a prize-winning mystery novel Murder Yet to Come in 1929, using typological ideas. She added to her mother's typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely. In 1942, the "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator" was created, and the Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944. The indicator changed its name to the modern form (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) in 1956.


About the indicator


The indicator differs from standardized tests and others measuring traits, such as intelligence, instead classifying people's preferred types. According to Myers-Briggs Theory, while types and traits are both inborn, traits can be improved akin to skills, whereas types, if supported by a healthy environment, naturally differentiate over time. The indicator attempts to tell the order in which this occurs in each person, and it is that information, combined with interviews done with others who have indicated having the same preferences, that the complete descriptions are based on. The indicator then, is akin to an arrow which attempts to point in the direction of the proper description. The facet of the theory which posits that the features being sorted for are in fact types, and not traits which can be improved with practice, is hotly debated.

However, proponents of the indicator will explain that to learn about one's inborn traits is to create the opportunity to improve how one applies them in different contexts. In that sense, the MBTI can yield much personal change and growth.

The types the MBTI sorts for, known as dichotomies, are extraversion / introversion, sensing / intuition, thinking / feeling and judging / perceiving. Each of the sixteen types is referred to by a four-letter abbreviation, such as ESTJ or INFP, indicating that type's preference in each dichotomy. The term best-fit types refers to the ethical code that facilitators are required to follow. It states that the person taking the indicator is always the best judge of what their preferences are and that the indicator alone should never be used to make this decision.


Items and scoring

The MBTI includes 93 forced-choice questions, which means there are only two options. Participants may skip questions if they feel they are unable to choose. Using psychometric techniques, such as item response theory, the MBTI will then be scored and will attempt to identify which dichotomy the participant prefers. After taking the MBTI, participants are given a readout of their score, which will include a bar graph and number of how many points they received on a certain scale. Confusion over the meaning of these numbers often causes them to be related to trait theory, and people mistakenly believe, for example, that their intuition is "more developed" than their sensing, or vice versa.

During construction of the MBTI, thousands of items were used, and most were thrown out because they did not have high midpoint discrimination, meaning the results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score away from the midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the MBTI to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as other instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination. The MBTI requires five points one way or another to indicate a significant preference.


The preferences

The terms Introvert and Extravert (sometimes spelled 'extrovert') are sometimes referred to as attitudes. An introvert is more interested in the inner world of ideas; an extravert prefers the outer world of people and things.

Sensing and Intuition are the perceiving functions. Jung called them the irrational functions (as a technical term, not as a pejorative), as a person does not necessarily have control over receiving data, but only how to process it once they have it. Sensing people tend to focus on the present and on concrete information gained from their senses. Sensing prefers to receive data primarily from the five senses. Intuitives tend to focus on the future, with a view toward patterns and possibilities. These people prefer to receive data from the subconscious, or seeing relationships via insights.

Dichotomies

Extraversion

Introversion

Sensing

iNtuition

Thinking

Feeling

Judging

Perceiving

A dichotomy is a division of two mutually exclusive groups, or in this case, type preferences.

Thinking and Feeling are the decision making (judging) calculus functions. They both strive to make rational choices, using the data received from their perceiving functions, above. Thinking people tend to base their decisions on logic "true or false, if-then" connections and on objective analysis of cause and effect. Feeling people tend to base their decisions primarily on values and on subjective evaluation of person centered concerns. Feelings use "more or less, better-worse" evaluations. It could be said that thinkers decide with their heads, while feelers decide with their hearts. When Thinking or Feeling is extraverted, decisions tend to rely on external sources and the generally accepted rules and procedures. When introverted, Thinking and Feeling decisions tend to be subjective, relying on internally generated ideas for logical organization and evaluation.

Judging and Perceiving refer to the S/N and T/F dichotomies just described. J or P records which of the two dichotomies is used for dealing with the external world. J types tend to like a planned and organized approach to life and prefer to have things settled. P types tend to like a flexible and spontaneous approach to life and prefer to keep their options open. (The terminology may be misleading for some—the term "Judging" does not necessarily imply "judgmental", and "Perceiving" does not necessarily imply "perceptive" in the usual sense of the word.)

In J-types, the preferred judging function (T or F) is extraverted (displayed in the outer world). J-types tend to prefer a step-by-step (left brain: parts to whole) approach to life, relying on external rules and procedures, and preferring quick closure. The preferred perceiving function (S or N) is introverted. On the other hand, in P-types the preferred perceiving function is extraverted, and the preferred judging function is introverted. This can result in a more spontaneous approach to life (right brain: whole to parts), relying on subjective judgments, and a desire to leave all options open.

Introverts turn their dominant function inward, so the J or P indicates their auxiliary function. In INTP, for example, the P says that the perceptive function, in this case N, is the individual's extraverted function, so to most observers, the individual appears to be an iNtuitive; the INTP's dominant function is the T, but it is introverted, and thus harder for others to observe. (
Socionics, a personality theory similar to MBTI, follows the opposite notation for introverts; the J/P designation in this theory refers to the dominant function for all types.)

Type dynamics

The interaction of two, three, or four preferences are known as type dynamics, and when dealing with a four-preference combination it is called a type. In total, there are 16 unique types, and many more possible two and three letter combinations, which each have their own descriptive name. Additionally, it is sometimes possible to observe the interactions that each preference combination will have with another combination, although this is more unorthodox. Complete descriptions will contain the unique interactions of all four preferences in that person, and these are typically written by licensed psychologists based on data gathered from thousands of interviews and studies. The Center for Applications of Psychological Type has released short descriptions on the internet. The most in-depth descriptions, including statistics, can be found in The Manual.

The Sixteen Types

ISTJ

ISFJ

INFJ

INTJ

ISTP

ISFP

INFP

INTP

ESTP

ESFP

ENFP

ENTP

ESTJ

ESFJ

ENFJ

ENTJ

The table organizing the sixteen types was created by Isabel Myers, who preferred INFP (To find the opposite type of the one you are looking at, jump over one type diagonally.)

The type table

The type table is a visualization tool which is useful for discussing the dynamic qualities and interactions of preference combinations. It will typically be divided by selecting any pair of preferences and comparing or contrasting. One of the most common and basic has been used to the right. It is the grouping of the mental functions, ST, SF, NF and NT, and focuses on the combination of perception and judgment. Alternatively, if we group by the rows we will have the four attitudes which are IJ, IP, EP and EJ. There are also more complex groupings, such as combinations of perception and orientations to the outer world, which are SJ, SP, NP and NJ, or combinations of judgement and orientations to the outer world, which are TJ, TP, FP, and FJ.



Cognitive function dynamics in each type

In each type, all four of the cognitive, or mental functions, which are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling, are present and arranged in a different order. The type acronym is used as a quick way to figure out this order, which is slightly different in introverts and extraverts. An important point to remember is that the first and last letter of the type are used as guides to figure out the order of the middle two letters, which are the main priority. The chart below this section has the dynamics worked out for each type.

Population Breakdown

ISTJ
11.6%

ISFJ
13.8%

INFJ
1.5%

INTJ
2.1%

ISTP
5.4%

ISFP
8.8%

INFP
4.3%

INTP
3.3%

ESTP
4.3%

ESFP
8.5%

ENFP
8.1%

ENTP
3.2%

ESTJ
8.7%

ESFJ
12.3%

ENFJ
2.4%

ENTJ
1.8%

By using inferential statistics an estimate of the preferences found in the US population has been gathered.

Extraverts

If the first letter of the type is an E, such as ESTJ, then the dominant function (one of the middle two letters) is extraverted. The next step is to figure out to which one this is applied to. This is simple for extroverts, since the last letter tells us right away which function is extroverted. So if the last letter is a P, then the extroverted dominant will be the second letter, the perceiving function, Sensing in this example, and if it is a J, then it will be the third letter, the judging function - in this case, Thinking. In either case, the auxiliary function will be introverted. Thus, we can tell that the first or dominant function in the ESTJ is extraverted thinking, and the second is introverted sensing. The third function is the opposite of the second, and in this case is extraverted intuition, and the fourth is introverted feeling.


Introverts

If the first letter of the type is an I, such as in INFP, then the dominant is introverted. To figure out which of the middle two letters this applies to, remember that the last letter indicates which function is extraverted. Therefore, it is the other function that the dominant "I" will apply to. So if the last letter is a P, then the extroverted auxiliary function will be the second letter, the perceiving function (iNtuiting in this case), and the introverted dominant function will be the third letter, (the judging function, Feeling in this example). If it is a J, then the third letter, which is the judging function will be the extroverted auxiliary, and the second letter, the perceiving function will be the introverted dominant function. (The process may seem backwards and slightly confusing for introverts.) Already it is possible to tell that the INFP has an introverted dominant, and since their perceiving function (iNtuition) is extraverted, the dominant must be the judging function (Feeling). Thus the dominant function is introverted feeling, and the second function (the auxiliary) is extraverted intuition.


The four functions alternate in orientation. For introverts, the sequence would proceed introverted, extraverted, introverted, extraverted. The third function (the tertiary) is the opposite of the second, and the fourth is the opposite of the first. For an INFP, with introverted feeling and extraverted intuition, the third function is introverted sensing, and the fourth is extraverted thinking.


Function table

Type

ISITEJ

ISIFEJ

INIFEJ

INITEJ

Dominant or first

Introverted Sensing

Introverted Sensing

Introverted Intuition

Introverted Intuition

Auxiliary or second

Extraverted Thinking

Extraverted Feeling

Extraverted Feeling

Extraverted Thinking

Tertiary or third

Introverted Feeling

Introverted Thinking

Introverted Thinking

Introverted Feeling

Inferior or fourth

Extraverted Intuition

Extraverted Intuition

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Sensing

Type

ISETIP

ISEFIP

INEFIP

INETIP

Dominant or first

Introverted Thinking

Introverted Feeling

Introverted Feeling

Introverted Thinking

Auxiliary or second

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Intuition

Extraverted Intuition

Tertiary or third

Introverted Intuition

Introverted Intuition

Introverted Sensing

Introverted Sensing

Inferior or fourth

Extraverted Feeling

Extraverted Thinking

Extraverted Thinking

Extraverted Feeling

Type

ESETIP

ESEFIP

ENEFIP

ENETIP

Dominant or first

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Intuition

Extraverted Intuition

Auxiliary or second

Introverted Thinking

Introverted Feeling

Introverted Feeling

Introverted Thinking

Tertiary or third

Extraverted Feeling

Extraverted Thinking

Extraverted Thinking

Extraverted Feeling

Inferior or fourth

Introverted Intuition

Introverted Intuition

Introverted Sensing

Introverted Sensing

Type

ESITEJ

ESIFEJ

ENIFEJ

ENITEJ

Dominant or first

Extraverted Thinking

Extraverted Feeling

Extraverted Feeling

Extraverted Thinking

Auxiliary or second

Introverted Sensing

Introverted Sensing

Introverted Intuition

Introverted Intuition

Tertiary or third

Extraverted Intuition

Extraverted Intuition

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Sensing

Inferior or fourth

Introverted Feeling

Introverted Thinking

Introverted Thinking

Introverted Feeling

Below, the MBTI personality archetypes, after David West Keirsey. Keirsey adds four "Temperaments": SP - Artisan; SJ - Guardian; NF - Idealist; and NT - Rational.

Temperament

David W. Keirsey
mapped four 'Temperaments' to the existing Myers-Briggs system groupings SP, SJ, NF and NT; often resulting in confusion of the two theories. However, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter is not directly associated with the official Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Other groupings, such as "Interaction Styles" have also been mapped to the MBTI.

Temperament

SJ

SP

NF

NT

iStJ

iSfJ

iNFj

iNTj

iStP

iSfP

iNFp

iNTp

eStP

eSfP

eNFp

eNTp

eStJ

eSfJ

eNFj

eNTj

Keirsey's four temperaments within the MBTI.

Correlations to other instruments

McCrae & Costa present
correlations between the MBTI scales and the Big Five personality construct, which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests. The five personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability (or neuroticism). The following study is based on the results from 267 men followed as part of a longitudinal study of ageing. (Similar results were obtained with 201 women.)

 

Extraversion

Openness

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Neuroticism

E-I

-.74

.03

-.03

.08

.16

S-N

.10

.72

.04

-.15

-.06

T-F

.19

.02

.44

-.15

.06

J-P

.15

.30

-.06

-.49

.11

The closer the number is to 1.0 or -1.0, the higher the degree of correlation.

These data suggest that four of the MBTI scales are related to the Big Five personality traits. These correlations show that E-I and S-N are strongly related to extraversion and openness respectively. T-F and J-P are more weakly related to agreeableness and conscientiousness respectively. The emotional stability dimension of the Big Five is largely absent from the MBTI.

These findings lead McCrae and Costa to conclude "There was no support for the view that the MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types... Jung's theory is either incorrect or inadequately operationalized by the MBTI and cannot provide a sound basis for interpreting it."

MBTI step II

Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences as well as similarities, and at the time of her death was developing a more in depth method to offer clues about how each person expresses and experiences their type pattern. In the 1980's, Kathy and Peter Myers developed a team of type experts, and a
factor analysis was conducted. This resulted in the identification of five subscales (with corresponding pairs of facets each) for each of the four MBTI scales.

Extraverting

Introverting

Sensing

Intuiting

Thinking

Feeling

Judging

Perceiving

Initiating
Expressive
Gregarious
Active
Enthusiastic

Receiving
Contained
Intimate
Reflective
Quiet

Concrete
Realistic
Practical
Experiential
Traditional

Abstract
Imaginative
Conceptual
Theoretical
Original

Logical
Reasonable
Questioning
Critical
Tough

Empathetic
Compassionate
Accommodating
Accepting
Tender

Systematic
Planful
Early Starting
Scheduled
Methodical

Casual
Open-ended
Prompted
Spontaneous
Emergent

These break down the uniqueness of individuals into greater detail, by bringing to light the subtle nuances of personality type; thus avoiding the reduction of all of personality to just the 16 types. In addition to this, the Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI) (Saunders, 1989) is a scoring system for the longer MBTI, Form J, that includes the 20 subscales above, plus an additional factor of Comfort-Discomfort (which purportedly corresponds to the missing factor of Neuroticism), with seven additional scales indicating a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety (guarded-optimistic, defiant-compliant, carefree-worried, decisive-ambivalent, intrepid-inhibited, leader-follower, proactive-distractible), plus a composite of these called "strain". Each of these comfort-discomfort subscales also loads on one of the four type dimensions, e.g., proactive-distractible is also a judging-perceiving subscale. There are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency. Reliability of 23 of the 27 TDI subscales is greater than .50; "an acceptable result given the brevity of the subscales" (Saunders, 1989).

A "Step III" is also being developed in a joint project involving CPP, publisher of the whole family of MBTI works; CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type), which holds all of Myers' and McCaulley's original work; and the MBTI Trust, headed by Katharine and Peter Myers. Step III will further address the use of perception and judgment by respondents.


Study of scoring consistency

Split-half
reliability of the MBTI scales is good, although test-retest reliability is sensitive to the time between tests. However, because the MBTI dichotomies scores in the middle of the distribution, type allocations are less reliable. Within each scale, as measured on Form G, about 83% of categorisations remain the same when retested within nine months, and around 75% when retested after nine months. About 50% of people tested within nine months remain the same overall type and 36% remain the same after nine months.

Ethics

Before purchasing the MBTI, practitioners are required to consent to an
ethical code, in addition to meeting the educational requirements of class B and C psychological tests and assessments. After consenting to this code the usage of the indicator is largely unmonitored, which sometimes leads to abuses of the instrument. The ethical code contains, but is not limited to, the following points:

  1. Results should be given directly to respondents and are strictly confidential, including from employers.

  2. Respondents should be informed of the nature of the test before taking it, and must choose to take it voluntarily.

  3. Allow respondents to clarify their results. They are always the last word as to which type is truly theirs. They should then be provided a written description of their preferences.

  4. The test must be used in accordance with The Manual.

In addition, the results of the instrument should not, ethically, be provided to a client without an accompanying consultative interpretation offered by the practitioner who administered the instrument. This interpretation may be conducted in person, via telephone or online. While the instrument and resulting interpretive report are a first step in determining MBTI personality type, the consultative interpretation guides and supports the client in ensuring they achieve a best-fit MBTI personality type.

Criticism

The scientific basis of the MBTI has been questioned. Neither Katharine Cook Briggs nor Isabel Briggs Myers had any scientific qualifications in the field of psychometric testing. Furthermore, Carl Jung's theory of psychological type, which the MBTI attempts to operationalise, is not based on any scientific studies. Jung's methods primarily included introspection and anecdote, methods largely rejected by the modern field of cognitive psychology.

Validity

The
statistical validity of the MBTI as a psychometric instrument has also been subject to criticism, in particular, the dichotomous scoring of dimensions. For example, it was expected that scores would show a bimodal distribution with peaks near the ends of the scales. However, scores on the individual subscales are actually distributed in a centrally peaked manner similar to a normal distribution. A cut-off exists at the centre of the subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score on the other side as the opposite type. This fails to support the concept of type--the norm is for people to lie near the middle of the subscale.

It has been estimated that between a third and a half of the published material on the MBTI has been produced for conferences of the Center for the Application of Psychological Type (which provides training in the MBTI) or as papers in the Journal of Psychological Type (which is edited by Myers-Briggs advocates) and it has been argued that this reflects a lack of critical scrutiny.


Reliability

The reliability of the test has been interpreted as being low, with test takers who retake the test often being assigned a different type. According to surveys performed by the proponents of Myers-Briggs, the highest percentage of people who fell into the same category on the second test is only 47%. Furthermore, a wide range of 39% - 76% of those tested fall into different types upon retesting weeks or years later, and many people's types were also found to vary according to the time of the day. Skeptics claim that the MBTI lacks falsifiability, which can cause confirmation bias in the interpretation of results with the terminology of the MBTI so vague that it allows any kind of behavior to fit any personality type, resulting in the Forer effect, where an individual gives a high rating to a positive description that supposedly applies specifically to them so that when people are asked to compare their preferred type to that assigned by the MBTI only half of people pick the same profile.

Utility

The relevance of the MBTI for career planning has been questioned, with reservations about the relevance of type to job performance or satisfaction, and concerns about the potential misuse of the instrument in labelling individuals.

Notes

Psychological Type


 
Jung, Carl Gustav (August 1, 1971). Psychological Types (Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 6). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09770-4.

Hunsley J, Lee CM, Wood JM (2004). Controversial and questionable assessment techniques. Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.). Guilford, ISBN 1-59385-070-0, p. 65.

McCrae, R R; Costa, P T (1989) Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From the Perspective of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality, 57(1):17-40.

Stricker, L J; Ross, J (1964) An Assessment of Some Structural Properties of the Jungian Personality Typology. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(1):62-71.

Pittenger, D.J. (1993) Measuring the MBTI...And Coming Up Short (pdf). Journal of Career Planning & Placement.

Consulting Psychologists Press (2004). Trademark Guidelines. Retrieved December 20, 2004.

Geyer, Peter (1998) Some Significant Dates. Retrieved December 5, 2005.

University of Florida (2003) Guide to the Isabel Briggs Myers Papers 1885-1992, George A. Smathers Libraries, Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, Gainesville, FL. Retrieved December 5, 2005.

Martin, Charles Dr. (2004) The Sixteen Types at a Glance. The Center for Applications of Psychological Type. Retrieved December 20, 2004.

Myers, Isabel Briggs; McCaulley Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L. (1998). MBTI Manual (A guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs type indicator). Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed edition. ISBN 0-89106-130-4 11.  Harvey, R J (1996)

Reliability and Validity, in MBTI Applications.
A.L. Hammer, Editor. Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA. p. 5- 29.


The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Ethical Use of the MBTI® Instrument. Retrieved December 20, 2004.

The Center for Applications of Psychological Type. MBTI® Code of Ethics. Retrieved December 20, 2004.

Carroll, Robert Todd (January 9, 2004). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®. The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved January 8, 2004.

Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. (2001, April). Bimodal score distributions and the MBTI: Fact or artifact? Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego.

Matthews, P (2004) The MBTI is a flawed measure of personality. bmj.com Rapid Responses. But see also Clack & Allen's response to Matthews.

Coffield F, Moseley D, Hall E, Ecclestone K (2004) Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Learning and Skills Research Centre.

Carskadon, TG & Cook, DD (1982). Validity of MBTI descriptions as perceived by recipients unfamiliar with type. Research in Psychological Type 5: 89-94.

Druckman, D. and R. A. Bjork, Eds. (1992). In the Mind’s Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-04747-1. 

References & further reading

  • Hunsley J, Lee CM, Wood JM (2004). Controversial and questionable assessment techniques. Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.). Guilford, ISBN 1-59385-070-0

  • Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. (2001, April). Bimodal score distributions and the MBTI: Fact or artifact? Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego.

  • Bourne, Dana (2005); Personality Types and the Transgender Community. Retrieved November 14, 2005

  • Falt, Jack; Bibliography of MBTI/Temperament Books by Author. Retrieved December 20, 2004

  • Georgia State University; GSU Master Teacher Program: On Learning Styles. Retrieved December 20, 2004.

  • Jung, Carl Gustav (1965); Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books: New York, 1965. p. 207

  • Matthews, Paul (2004); The MBTI is a flawed measure of personality. bmj.com Rapid Responses. Retrieved February 9, 2005

  • Myers, Isabel Briggs (1980); Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black Publishing; Reprint edition (May 1, 1995). ISBN 0-89106-074-X

  • Personality Plus; Employers love personality tests. But what do they really reveal?

  • Saunders, D. (1989). Type Differentiation Indicator Manual: A scoring system for Form J of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.

  • Skeptics Dictionary "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator"

  • Virginia Tech; The Relationship Between Psychological Type and Professional Orientation Among Technology Education Teachers. Retrieved December 20, 2004

  • Thomas G. Long (October 1992). "Myers-Briggs and other Modern Astrologies". Theology Today 49 (3): 291-95. 

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